Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black Hole

DOI: 
10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.141104
Publication date: 
20/11/2020
Main author: 
Psaltis D.
IAA authors: 
Alberdi, A.;Gómez, J.L.;Lico, R.
Authors: 
Psaltis D., Medeiros L., Christian P., Özel F., Akiyama K., Alberdi A., Alef W., Asada K., Azulay R., Ball D., Baloković M., Barrett J., Bintley D., Blackburn L., Boland W., Bower G.C., Bremer M., Brinkerink C.D., Brissenden R., Britzen S., Broguiere D., Bronzwaer T., Byun D.-Y., Carlstrom J.E., Chael A., Chan C.-K., Chatterjee S., Chatterjee K., Chen M.-T., Chen Y., Cho I., Conway J.E., Cordes J.M., Crew G.B., Cui Y., Davelaar J., De Laurentis M., Deane R., Dempsey J., Desvignes G., Dexter J., Eatough R.P., Falcke H., Fish V.L., Fomalont E., Fraga-Encinas R., Friberg P., Fromm C.M., Gammie C.F., Garciá R., Gentaz O., Goddi C., Gómez J.L., Gu M., Gurwell M., Hada K., Hesper R., Ho L.C., Ho P., Honma M., Huang C.-W.L., Huang L., Hughes D.H., Inoue M., Issaoun S., James D.J., Jannuzi B.T., Janssen M., Jiang W., Jimenez-Rosales A., Johnson M.D., Jorstad S., Jung T., Karami M., Karuppusamy R., Kawashima T., Keating G.K., Kettenis M., Kim J.-Y., Kim J., Kim J., Kino M., Koay J.Y., Koch P.M., Koyama S., Kramer M., Kramer C., Krichbaum T.P., Kuo C.-Y., Lauer T.R., Lee S.-S., Li Y.-R., Li Z., Lindqvist M., Lico R., Liu J., Liu K., Liuzzo E., Lo W.-P., Lobanov A.P., Lonsdale C., Lu R.-S., Mao J., Markoff S., Marrone D.P., Marscher A.P., Martí-Vidal I., Matsushita S., Mizuno Y., Mizuno I., Moran J.M., Moriyama K., Moscibrodzka M., Müller C., Musoke G., Mus Mejiás A., Nagai H., Nagar N.M., Narayan R., Narayanan G., Natarajan I., Neri R., Noutsos A., Okino H., Olivares H., Oyama T., Palumbo D.C.M., Park J., Patel N., Pen U.-L., Piétu V., Plambeck R., Popstefanija A., Prather B., Preciado-López J.A., Ramakrishnan V., Rao R., Rawlings M.G., Raymond A.W., Ripperda B., Roelofs F., Rogers A., Ros E., Rose M., Roshanineshat A., Rottmann H., Roy A.L., Ruszczyk C., Ryan B.R., Rygl K.L.J., Sánchez S., Sánchez-Arguelles D., Sasada M., Savolainen T., Schloerb F.P., Schuster K.-F., Shao L., Shen Z., Small D., Sohn B.W., Soohoo J., Tazaki F., Tilanus R.P.J., Titus M., Torne P., Trent T., Traianou E., Trippe S., Van Bemmel I., Van Langevelde H.J., Van Rossum D.R., Wagner J., Wardle J., Ward-Thompson D., Weintroub J., Wex N., Wharton R., Wielgus M., Wong G.N., Wu Q., Yoon D., Young A., Young K., Younsi Z., Yuan F., Yuan Y.-F., Zhao S.-S., (EHT Collaboration)
Journal: 
Physical Review Letters
Refereed: 
Yes
Publication type: 
Article
Volume: 
125.0
Pages: 
141104
Number: 
141104
Abstract: 
The 2017 Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of the central source in M87 have led to the first measurement of the size of a black-hole shadow. This observation offers a new and clean gravitational test of the black-hole metric in the strong-field regime. We show analytically that spacetimes that deviate from the Kerr metric but satisfy weak-field tests can lead to large deviations in the predicted black-hole shadows that are inconsistent with even the current EHT measurements. We use numerical calculations of regular, parametric, non-Kerr metrics to identify the common characteristic among these different parametrizations that control the predicted shadow size. We show that the shadow-size measurements place significant constraints on deviation parameters that control the second post-Newtonian and higher orders of each metric and are, therefore, inaccessible to weak-field tests. The new constraints are complementary to those imposed by observations of gravitational waves from stellar-mass sources. © 2020 American Physical Society.
Database: 
SCOPUS
ADS
URL: 
https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/#abs/2020PhRvL.125n1104P/abstract
ADS Bibcode: 
2020PhRvL.125n1104P