Rings and arcs around evolved stars - I. Fingerprints of the last gasps in the formation process of planetary nebulae

DOI: 
10.1093/mnras/stw1572
Publication date: 
01/10/2016
Main author: 
Ramos-Larios, G.
IAA authors: 
Guerrero, M. A.;Marquez-Lugo, R. A.;Toalá, J. A.
Authors: 
Ramos-Larios, G.;Santamaría, E.;Guerrero, M. A.;Marquez-Lugo, R. A.;Sabin, L.;Toalá, J. A.
Journal: 
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Refereed: 
Yes
Publication type: 
Article
Volume: 
462
Pages: 
610-635
Abstract: 
Evolved stars such as asymptotic giant branch stars (AGB), post-AGB stars, proto-planetary nebulae (proto-PNe), and planetary nebulae (PNe) show rings and arcs around them and their nebular shells. We have searched for these morphological features in optical Hubble Space Telescope and mid-infrared Spitzer Space Telescope images of ̃650 proto-PNe and PNe and discovered them in 29 new sources. Adding those to previous detections, we derive a frequency of occurrence ≃8 per cent. All images have been processed to remove the underlying envelope emission and enhance outer faint structures to investigate the spacing between rings and arcs and their number. The averaged time lapse between consecutive rings and arcs is estimated to be in the range 500-1200 yr. The spacing between them is found to be basically constant for each source, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the formation of these structures in the final stages of evolved stars is stable during time periods of the order of the total duration of the ejection. In our sample, this period of time spans ≤4500 yr.
Database: 
ADS
SCOPUS
WOK
URL: 
https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/#abs/2016MNRAS.462..610R/abstract
ADS Bibcode: 
2016MNRAS.462..610R
Keywords: 
techniques: image processing;stars: AGB and post-AGB;planetary nebulae: general;infrared: ISM