Modeling the Chemical Impact and the Optical Emissions Produced by Lightning-Induced Electromagnetic Fields in the Upper Atmosphere: The case of Halos and Elves Triggered by Different Lightning Discharges

DOI: 
10.1029/2017JD028235
Publication date: 
28/08/2018
Main author: 
Pérez-Invernón F.J.
IAA authors: 
Pérez-Invernón, F.J.;Luque, A.;Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J.
Authors: 
Pérez-Invernón F.J., Luque A., Gordillo-Vázquez F.J.
Journal: 
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Refereed: 
Yes
Publication type: 
Article
Volume: 
123
Pages: 
7615-7641
Abstract: 
Halos and elves are transient luminous events produced in the lower ionosphere as a consequence of lightning-driven electromagnetic fields. These events can influence the upper atmospheric chemistry and produce optical emissions. We have developed different two-dimensional self-consistent models that couple electrodynamical equations with a chemical scheme to simulate halos and elves produced by vertical cloud-to-ground lightning discharges, compact intracloud discharges and energetic in-cloud pulses. The optical emissions from radiative relaxation of excited states of molecular and atomic nitrogen and oxygen have been calculated. We have upgraded previous local models of halos and elves to calculate for the first time the vibrationally detailed optical spectra of elves triggered by compact intracloud discharges and energetic in-cloud pulses. According to our results, the optical spectra of elves do not depend on the type of parent lightning discharge. Finally, we have quantified the local chemical impact in the upper atmosphere of single halos and elves. In the case of the halo, we follow the cascade of chemical reactions triggered by the lightning-produced electric field during a long-time simulation of up to 1 s. We obtain a production rate of NO molecules by single halos and elves of 1016 and 1014 molecules/J, respectively. The results of these local models have been used to estimate the global production of NO by halos and elves in the upper atmosphere at ∼10−7 Tg N/year. This global chemical impact of halos and elves is 7 orders of magnitude below the production of NO in the troposphere by lightning discharges. ©2018. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Database: 
SCOPUS
ADS
URL: 
https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/#abs/2018JGRD..123.7615P/abstract
ADS Bibcode: 
2018JGRD..123.7615P
Keywords: 
CID; EIP; elves; halos; lightning; TLEs